Lectures on the Near-Side Ridge, Landau Hydrodynamics, and Heavy Quarkonia in High Energy Heavy-Ion Collisions
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, USA
We give an introduction to three diﬀerent topics that are of current interest in heavy-ion collisions. Particles associated with the near-side jet are found to exhibit a Δφ-Δη correlation in the form of a ridge in the Δη direction but a peak at Δφ ~ 0. The experimental data support the description that the ridge particles are medium partons kicked by the jet. The measurement of the characteristics of the ridge provides a unique tool to probe the nature of the (jet parton)-(medium parton) collision and the momentum distribution of dense matter formed in the early stage of the heavy-ion collision. We ﬁnd that the magnitude of the longitudinal momentum kick along the jet direction acquired by a medium parton in collision with the jet is about 1 GeV, and the early parton momentum distribution is in the form of a rapidity plateau with a thermal-type transverse momentum distribution. In the second lecture, we re-examine the validity of Landau hydrodynamics which provides a reasonable description of the space-time dynamics of the hot matter produced in high-energy heavy-ion collisions. We ﬁnd that the rapidity distribution of produced particles should be more appropriately modiﬁed from Landau’s result. Past successes of the Gaussian distribution in explaining experimental rapidity data can be understood, not because it is an approximation of the original Landau distribution, but because it is in fact a close representation of the modiﬁed distribution. In the ﬁnal lecture, we give an introduction to the development of the potential model for quarkonia, using thermodynamical quantities obtained in lattice gauge calculations. We ﬁnd that the potential model is consistent with the lattice gauge spectral function analysis, if the color-singlet heavy quark-antiquark potential is a linear combination of the color-singlet free energy F1 and internal energy U1 , with coeﬃcients that depend on the equation of state. We ﬁnd that the eﬀects of dynamical quark modiﬁes only slightly the stability of J/ψ and the quark drip line limits possible quarkonium states with light quarks to temperatures close to, and slightly greater than, the critical phase transition temperature.
© Owned by the authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2010