Scale and size effects in dynamic fracture of concretes and rocks
1 Saint Petersburg State University, 7/9, Universitetskaya nab., St. Petersburg 199034, Russia
2 IPME RAS, Extreme States Dynamics Department, V.O., Bolshoj pr., 61, St. Petersburg 199178, Russia
Published online: 7 September 2015
Structural-temporal approach based on the notion of incubation time is used for interpretation of strain-rate effects in the fracture process of concretes and rocks. It is established that temporal dependences of concretes and rocks are calculated by the incubation time criterion. Experimentally observed different relations between ultimate stresses of concrete and mortar in static and dynamic conditions are explained. It is obtained that compressive strength of mortar at a low strain rate is greater than that of concrete, but at a high strain rate the opposite is true. Influence of confinement pressure on the mechanism of dynamic strength for concretes and rocks is discussed. Both size effect and scale effect for concrete and rocks samples subjected to impact loading are analyzed. Statistical nature of a size effect contrasts to a scale effect that is related to the definition of a spatio-temporal representative volume determining the fracture event on the given scale level.
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