Big Bang, inflation, standard Physics… and the potentialities of new Physics and alternative cosmologies. Present statuts of observational and experimental Cosmology. Open questions and potentialities of alternative cosmologies
Megatrend Cosmology Laboratory, John Naisbitt University, Belgrade and Paris Goce Delceva 8, 11070 Novi Beograd, Serbia
Published online: 4 November 2016
A year ago, we wrote  that the field of Cosmology was undergoing a positive and constructive crisis. The possible development of more direct links between the Mathematical Physics aspects of cosmological patterns and the interpretation of experimental and observational results was particularly emphasized. Controversies on inflation are not really new, but in any case inflation is not required in pre-Big Bang models and the validity of the standard Big Bang + inflation + ΛCDM pattern has not by now been demonstrated by data. Planck has even explicitly reported the existence of “anomalies”. Remembering the far-reaching work of Yoichiro Nambu published in 1959-61, it seems legitimate to underline the need for a cross-disciplinary approach in the presence of deep, unsolved theoretical problems concerning new domains of matter properties and of the physical world. The physics of a possible preonic vacuum and the associated cosmology constitute one of these domains. If the vacuum is made of superluminal preons (superbradyons), and if standard particles are vacuum excitations, how to build a suitable theory to describe the internal structure of such a vacuum at both local and cosmic level? Experimental programs (South Pole, Atacama, AUGER, Telescope Array…) and observational ones (Planck, JEM-EUSO…) devoted to the study of cosmic microwave background radiation (CMB) and of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECR) are crucial to elucidate such theoretical interrogations and guide new phenomenological developments. Together with a brief review of the observational and experimental situation, we also examine the main present theoretical and phenomenological problems and point out the role new physics and alternative cosmologies can potentially play. The need for data analyses less focused a priori on the standard models of Particle Physics and Cosmology is emphasized in this discussion. An example of a new approach to both fields is provided by the pre-Big Bang pattern based on a physical vacuum made of superbradyons with the spinorial space-time (SST) geometry we introduced in 1996-97. In particular, the SST automatically generates a local privileged space direction (PSD) for earch comoving observer and such a signature may have been confirmed by Planck data. Both superluminal preons and the existence of the PSD would have strong cosmological implications. Planck 2016 results will be particularly relevant as a step in the study of present open questions.
This paper is dedicated to the memory of Yoichiro Nambu
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2016
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