The discovery of elements 113 to 118
1 Flerov Laboratory of Nuclear Reactions, Joint Institute for Nuclear Research, 141980 Dubna, Russian Federation
2 Nuclear and Chemical Sciences Division, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94551, USA
3 Science and Technology Partnerships Directorate, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA
4 Physics Division, Oak Ridge National Laboratory, Oak Ridge, Tennessee 37831, USA
5 Department of Physics and Astronomy, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee 37235, USA
6 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Tennessee, Knoxville, Tennessee 37996, USA
7 Research Institute of Atomic Reactors, 433510 Dimitrovgrad, Russian Federation
a Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 1 December 2016
Discovery and investigation of the “Island of stability” of superheavy nuclei at the separator DGFRS in the 238U-249Cf+ 48Ca reactions is reviewed. The results are compared with the data obtained in chemistry experiments and at the separators SHIP, BGS, TASCA, and GARIS. The synthesis of the heaviest nuclei, their decay properties, and methods of identification are discussed and compared with the criteria that must be satisfied for claiming the discovery of a new chemical element. The role of shell effects in the stability of superheavy nuclei is demonstrated by comparison of the experimental results with empirical systematics and theoretical data.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences 2016
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).