Experimental study of shear bands formation in a granular material
Université de Rennes 1, Institut de Physique de Rennes (UMR UR1-CNRS 6251), F-35042 Rennes cedex, France
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Published online: 30 June 2017
We present an experimental investigation of the formation of shear bands in a granular sample submitted to a biaxial test. Our principal result is the direct observation of the bifurcation at the origin of the localization process in the material. At the bifurcation, the shear band is spatially extended: we observe a breaking of symmetry without any sudden localization of the deformation in a narrow band. Our work thus allows to clearly distinguish different phenomena: bifurcation which is a ponctual event which occurs before the peak, localization which is a process that covers a range of deformation of several percents during which the peak occurs and finally stationary shear bands which are well-defined permanent structures that can be observed at the end of the localization process, after the peak.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017
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