Ray Tracing Study on Top ECCD Launch in KSTAR
1 National Fusion Research Institute, 169-148 Gwahak-ro, Yuseong-gu, Daejeon 34133, Korea
2 Pohang University of Science and Technology, 77 Cheongam-Ro. Nam-Gu. Pohang 37673, Korea
* Corresponding author: email@example.com
Published online: 23 October 2017
The current drive efficiency of electron cyclotron (EC) wave is typically low compared with other RF and neutral beam heating system in tokamak. It is known that EC current drive by outboard launch suffers from low current drive efficiency due to electron trapping. However, the heating and current drive by EC wave is being regarded as a strong candidate for DEMO reactor due to the simplicity of the launcher, none of its interaction with plasma, and no coupling issue at the plasma edge. Also, off-axis heating and current drive by EC wave plays an important role of steady state operation optimization. To enhance the current drive efficiency in DEMO-relevant operation condition having high density and high temperature, the top launch of EC wave is recently proposed in FNSF design . In FNSF, a top launch makes use of a large toroidal component to the launch direction adjusting the vertical launch angle so that the rays propagate nearly parallel to the resonance layer increasing of Doppler shift with higher n||. The results shows a high dimensional efficiency for a broad ECCD profile peaked off axis. In KSTAR, the possibility of efficient off-axis ECCD using top launch is investigated using the ray tracing code, GENRAY  for the operating EC frequencies (105 GHz or 140 GHz, and 170 GHz). The high current drive efficiency is found by adjusting the toroidal magnetic field and the radial pivot position of the final launcher mirror for fundamental O-mode and second harmonic X-mode. A large Doppler shift is not quite sure in the typical plasma profile in KSTAR, but the simulation results show high current drive efficiency. This paper presents ray tracing results for many cases with the wave trajectories and damping of EC by scanning the launching angle for specific launcher pivot positions and toroidal magnetic field, and two equilibriums of the KSTAR.
© The authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2017
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