Cosmological Implication of Electroweak Monopole
Administration Building 310-4, Konkuk University, Seoul 143-701, Korea
2 School of Physics and Astronomy, Seoul National University, Seoul 151-747, Korea
a e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 3 August 2018
We estimate the remnant electroweak monopole density of the standard model in the present universe. We show that, although the electroweak phase transition is of the first order, the monopole production comes from the thermal fluctuations of the Higgs field after the phase transition, not the vacuum bubble collisions during the phase transition. Moreover, most of the monopoles produced initially are annihilated as soon as created, and this annihilation continues very long time, longer than the muon pair annihilation time. As the result the remnant monopole density at present universe becomes very small, of 10-11 of the critical density, too small to be the dark matter. We discuss the physical implications of our results on the ongoing monopole detection experiments.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences 2018
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