Lattice Evidence for Bound Heavy Tetraquarks
Theoretical Physics Department, CERN, CH-1211 Geneva 23, Switzerland
2 Department of Physics and Astronomy, York University, Toronto, Ontario, M3J 1P3, Canada
3 Department of Mathematics & Statistics, York University, Toronto, ON M3J 1P3, Canada
4 CSSM, University of Adelaide, Adelaide SA 5005, Australia
Published online: 13 March 2019
We investigate the possibility of qq' tetraquark bound states using nf = 2 + 1 lattice QCD with pion masses ≃ 164, 299 and 415 MeV. Two types of lattice interpolating operator are chosen, reflecting first diquarkantidiquark and second meson-meson structure. Performing variational analysis using these operators and their mixings, we determine the ground and first excited states from the lattice correlators. Using non-relativistic QCD to simulate the bottom quarks and the Tsukuba formulation of relativistic heavy quarks for charm quarks, we study the ud, ℓs as well as ud, channels with ℓ= u, d. In the case of the ud and ℓs channels unambiguous signals for JP=1+ tetraquarks are found with binding energies 189(10) and 98(7) MeV below the corresponding free two-meson thresholds at the physical point. These tetraquarks are therefore strong-interaction stable, implying they are stable under strong as well as electromagnetic interactions while they can decay weakly. So far these are the first exotic hadrons predicted to have this feature. Further evidence for binding is found in the ud channel, whereby the binding energy broadly straddles the electromagnetic stability threshold. Studying further the quark mass dependence we vary the heavy quark mass in ud, ℓs as well as ud, ℓs between roughly 0.7 and 6.3 times the bottom quark mass. The observed mass dependence of these four flavor channels closely follows a behaviour argued from phenomenological considerations of the heavy baryon spectrum.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
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