Towards a better estimation of energy and species of primary cosmic rays in the knee region with the Tibet hybrid experiment: Utilization of refined EAS lateral distributions
Key Laboratory of Particle Astrophysics, Institute of High Energy Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
2 University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
3 National Astronomical Observatories, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100012, China
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Published online: 10 May 2019
A new hybrid experiment (YAC-II+Tibet-III+MD) located at Yangbajing has started to improve the capability of explicit measurements of the cosmic-ray components (P, He, CNO, Fe, etc) at the knee energy region since 2014. Considering the different features of air shower development for different primary cosmic-ray nuclei, using a full Monte Carlo simulation, we modified the lateral distribution functions for proton-induced, helium-induced and iron-induced air showers, respectively. The results show that the air shower size of different nuclei obtained by the modified Nishimura-Kamata-Greisen function is consistent with the true shower size within 5% systematic errors. Furthermore, we studied the Extensive Air Shower age parameter determination from the lateral distribution functions of charged particles near the air shower core with the Tibet hybrid experiment. The derived age parameter can be well used to estimate the particle type of the incident primary cosmic rays.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
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