Covering the celestial sphere at ultra-high energies: Full-sky cosmic-ray maps beyond the ankle and the flux suppression
Institut de Physique Nucléaire d’Orsay (IPNO), Université Paris-Sud, Univ. Paris/Saclay, CNRS-IN2P3, Orsay, France
2 RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut A, Aachen, Germany
3 Università di Milano, Dipartimento di Fisica, Milano, Italy
4 Service de Physique Théorique, Université Libre de Bruxelles, Brussels, Belgium
5 Institute for Cosmic Ray Research, University of Tokyo, Kashiwa, Chiba, Japan
6 Centro Atómico Bariloche and Instituto Balseiro (CNEA-UNCuyo-CONICET), San Carlos de Bariloche, Argentina
7 High Energy Astrophysics Institute and Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of Utah, Salt Lake City, Utah, USA
8 Universidade Federal Fluminense, EEIMVR, Volta Redonda, RJ, Brazil
9 Karlsruhe Institute of Technology, Institute for Experimental Particle Physics (ETP), Karlsruhe, Germany
10 Institute for Nuclear Research of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Moscow, Russia
* e-mail: biteau(at)ipno.in2p3.fr
Published online: 17 May 2019
Despite deflections by Galactic and extragalactic magnetic fields, the distribution of ultra-high energy cosmic rays (UHECRs) over the celestial sphere remains a most promising observable for the identification of their sources. Thanks to a large number of detected events over the past years, a large-scale anisotropy at energies above 8 EeV has been identified, and there are also indications from the Telescope Array and Pierre Auger Collaborations of deviations from isotropy at intermediate angular scales (about 20 degrees) at the highest energies. In this contribution, we map the flux of UHECRs over the full sky at energies beyond each of two major features in the UHECR spectrum – the ankle and the flux suppression -, and we derive limits for anisotropy on different angular scales in the two energy regimes. In particular, full-sky coverage enables constraints on low-order multipole moments without assumptions about the strength of higher-order multipoles. Following previous efforts from the two Collaborations, we build full-sky maps accounting for the relative exposure of the arrays and differences in the energy normalizations. The procedure relies on cross-calibrating the UHECR fluxes reconstructed in the declination band around the celestial equator covered by both observatories. We present full-sky maps at energies above ~ 10 EeV and ~ 50 EeV, using the largest datasets shared across UHECR collaborations to date. We report on anisotropy searches exploiting full-sky coverage and discuss possible constraints on the distribution of UHECR sources.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
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