Systematic uncertainty of first-principle calculations of the radiation energy emitted by extensive air showers
Bergische Universität Wuppertal, Gauβstraβe 20, 42119
2 RWTH Aachen University, III. Physikalisches Institut A, Aachen, Germany
3 Department of Physics and Astronomy, University of California, Irvine, USA
4 Karlsruher Institut für Technologie, Institut für Kernphysik, Postfach 3640, 76021 Karlsruhe, Germany
5 Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Astrophysical Institute, Pleinlaan 2, 1050 Brussels, Belgium
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Published online: 24 September 2019
The energy of extensive air showers can be determined from the energy radiated in the form of radio signals. The so-called radiation energy can be predicted with modern simulation codes using first-principle calculations without the need of free parameters. Here, we verify the consistency of radiation energy calculations by comparing a large set of Monte Carlo simulations made with the two codes CoREAS and ZHAireS. For the frequency band of 30 — 80 MHz, typically used by many current radio detectors, we observe a difference in the radiation energy prediction of 5.2%. This corresponds to a radio emission modelling uncertainty of 2.6% for thedetermination of the absolute cosmic-ray energy scale. Hence, radio detection offers the opportunity for a precise, accurate and independent measurement of the absolute energy of cosmic rays.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
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