Updated Calibration of the LOFAR Low-Band Antennas
Astrophysical Institute, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels
2 Department of Astrophysics/IMAPP, Radboud University, P.O, Box 9010, 6500, GL Nijmegen, The Netherlands
3 NIKHEF, Science Park Amsterdam, 1098, XG Amsterdam The Netherlands
4 Netherlands Institute of Radio Astronomy (ASTRON), Postbus 2, 7990, AA Dwingeloo The Netherland
5 KVI-CART, University Groningen, P.O. Box 72, 9700, AB Groningen The Netherland
6 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, Princeton NJ 08544 USA
7 Interuniversity Institute for High-Energy, Vrije Universiteit Brussel, Pleinlaan 2, 1050, Brussels Belgium
8 Department of Astrophysical Sciences, Princeton University, SLinnéuniversitete, Växjö,, Germany
9 DESY, Platanenallee 6, 15738, Zeuthen Belgium
10 Humboldt-Universität zu Berlin, Institut für Physik, Newtonstr, 15,12489, Berlin Germany
★ e-mail: email@example.com, funded by ERC No 640130
Published online: 24 September 2019
The LOw-Frequency ARray (LOFAR) telescope measures radio emission from air showers. In order to interpret the data, an absolute, frequency dependent calibration is required. Due to a growing need for a better understanding of the measured frequency spectrum, we revisit the calibration of the LOFAR antennas in the range of 30—80 MHz. Using the galactic radio emission and a detailed model of the LOFAR signal chain, we find a calibration that provides an absolute energy scale and allows us to study frequency dependent features in measured air shower signals.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2019
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