Study of online measurements techniques of metallic phase spatial distribution into a corium pool
All authors work at CEA, DEN, Cadarache, F-13108 Saint-Paul-lez-Durance, France.
Published online: 20 January 2020
In the context of in-vessel retention (IVR) strategy in order to better assess the risk of reactor vessel failure, the knowledge related to the kinetics of immiscible liquid phases stratification phenomenon needs to be further improved. So far, only one medium-scale experiment (MASCA-RCW, in the frame of the OECD MASCA program) gives direct information regarding the transient relocation of metal below the oxide phase through post-mortem measurements. No experimental characterization of the stratification inversion kinetics when heavy metal becomes lighter and relocates at the top exists. Further investigation of these hydrodynamic and thermochemical processes could be made possible thanks to on line instrumentation enabling to follow displacement of oxidic and metallic phases into the corium pool. At CEA Cadarache, studies are under progress to set up innovative technologies for corium stratification monitoring which would be integrated to a cold crucible induction melting furnace. Based on space and time resolution specifications, three on-line measurements techniques were selected and studied. The first one is an ultrasonic technique using a refractory material waveguide and based on a time-of-flight measurement. We present the feasibility approach with the preliminary results obtained during experiments at high temperature on VITI facility. The second method consists in electromagnetic characterization of the corium pool thanks to an excitation by a magnetic field induced by surroundings coils and measurement of magnetic response by sensors placed around the crucible. A modelling study has enabled to define an appropriate experimental configuration. An experimental set up has also been tested to verify the calculation results. The third technique is 2D X-rays imaging. A feasibility study for a real-time X-ray imagingwith a framerate of 1 image/s has been performed using home-made simulation software MODHERATO, accounting forscattering, based on corium behavior previsions. Results on thedetection of interfaces between different type of corium phases(oxide, light metal, heavy metal) are shown.
Key words: PLINIUS-2 / Severe Accidents / Corium / Ultrasonic testing / Electromagnetic testing / X-ray imaging
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
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