NIKA2 observations around LBV stars Emission from stars and circumstellar material
1 Centro de Astrobiología (CSIC-INTA), Ctra. M-108, km. 4, E-28850 Torrejón de Ardoz, Madrid, Spain
2 Institut de Radioastronomie Milimétrique (IRAM), E-18012 Granada, Spain
3 ISDEFE, Beatriz de Bobadilla 3, E-28040 Madrid, Spain
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Published online: 27 January 2020
Luminous Blue Variable (LBV) stars are evolved massive objects, previous to core-collapse supernova. LBVs are characterized by photometric and spectroscopic variability, produced by strong and dense winds, mass-loss events and very intense UV radiation. LBVs strongly disturb their surroundings by heating and shocking, and produce important amounts of dust. The study of the circumstellar material is therefore crucial to understand how these massive stars evolve, and also to characterize their effects onto the interstellar medium. The versatility of NIKA2 is a key in providing simultaneous observations of both the stellar continuum and the extended, circumstellar contribution. The NIKA2 frequencies (150 and 260 GHz) are in the range where thermal dust and free-free emission compete, and hence NIKA2 has the capacity to provide key information about the spatial distribution of circumstellar ionized gas, warm dust and nearby dark clouds; non-thermal emission is also possible even at these high frequencies. We show the results of the first NIKA2 survey towards five LBVs. We detected emission from four stars, three of them immersed in tenuous circumstellar material. The spectral indices show a complex distribution and allowed us to separate and characterize different components. We also found nearby dark clouds, with spectral indices typical of thermal emission from dust. Spectral indices of the detected stars are negative and hard to be explained only by free-free processes. In one of the sources, G79.29+0.46, we also found a strong correlation of the 1mm and 2mm continuum emission with respect to nested molecular shells at ≈1 pc from the LBV. The spectral index in this region clearly separates four components: the LBV star, a bubble characterized by free-free emission, and a shell interacting with a nearby infrared dark cloud.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2020
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