Investigating slow shock in low-impedance materials using a direct impact Hopkinson bar setup
Albert-Ludwigs-Universität Freiburg, Sustainable Systems Engineering – INATECH, Emmy-noetherstraße 2, 79110 Freiburg, Germany
2 Fraunhofer Institute for High-Speed Dynamics, Ernst-Mach-Institut – EMI, Ernst-zermelo-straße 4, 79104 Freiburg, Germany
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Published online: 9 September 2021
This work implements a direct impact Hopkinson bar, suitable for investigating the evolution of dynamic force equilibrium in low-impedance materials. Polycarbonate as the bar material favours for a long pulse duration of 2.6 ms for an overall length of only 5 m, allowing to compress large specimens to high strains. This setup is applied to polyurethane foams with different densities ranging from 80 - 240 kg/m3. Dynamic compression tests are performed at strain rates of 0.0017, 0.5 and 500 /s on the foams at room temperature. Depending on density, they show a saturation in increase of yield strength at strain rates of 500 /s, or even show a negative strain rate sensitivity for the lowest density. This behaviour is explained by comparing the dynamic force equilibrium to a phenomenon similar to shock in solid materials: For low densities and high rates of strain, homogeneous compression is replaced by a localized collapse front with a jump in stress across the front. Digital image correlation is performed to analyse elastic and plastic compaction waves by means of Lagrange diagrams.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.