Dual-Parameterized Quantum Circuit GAN Model in High Energy Physics
1 OpenLab, CERN, Geneva, Switzerland
2 Department of Physics, EPFL, Lausanne, Switzerland
3 Cambridge Quantum Computing Ltd, Cambridge, UK
4 Department of Computer Science and Technology, University of Cambridge, Cambridge, UK
5 Department of Computer Science, University of Oviedo, Oviedo, Spain
6 Department of Computer and Information Sciences, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
7 Department of Physics, University College London, London, UK
* e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
** e-mail: email@example.com
*** e-mail: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 23 August 2021
Generative models, and Generative Adversarial Networks (GAN) in particular, are being studied as possible alternatives to Monte Carlo simulations. It has been proposed that, in certain circumstances, simulation using GANs can be sped-up by using quantum GANs (qGANs).
We present a new design of qGAN, the dual-Parameterized Quantum Circuit (PQC) GAN, which consists of a classical discriminator and two quantum generators which take the form of PQCs. The first PQC learns a probability distribution over N-pixel images, while the second generates normalized pixel intensities of an individual image for each PQC input.
With a view to HEP applications, we evaluated the dual-PQC architecture on the task of imitating calorimeter outputs, translated into pixelated images. The results demonstrate that the model can reproduce a fixed number of images with a reduced size as well as their probability distribution and we anticipate it should allow us to scale up to real calorimeter outputs.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.