X-ray spectroscopy study on Thai amulet of Phra Kru Nadune
Department of Earth Sciences, Faculty of Science, Kasetsart University, Bangkok 10900 Thailand
2 Department of Physics and Materials Science, Faculty of Science, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand
3 Center of Excellence in Materials Science and Technology, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand
4 Science and Technology Research Institute, Chiang Mai University, Chiang Mai 50200 Thailand
5 Independent Researcher, Retired Army Officer at the Royal Thai Army, Lopburi 15000 Thailand
* Corresponding author: firstname.lastname@example.org
Published online: 11 April 2022
Thai Amulets are found in many forms in Thailand. They have been made by many different ethnic groups with different traditions. Phra Kru Nadune is one of the important amulets created in Dvaravati period that has been found at Nadune district, Mahasarakham province, northeastern Thailand. Many molds which are all terracotta have been used for production. Microstructure and composition of selected samples of the ancient amulets and the imitative one have been characterized using scanning electron microscopy combined with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) and proton-induced X-ray emission spectroscopy (PIXE). The results show that many elements are present as major (C, O, and Si), minor (Na, Al, K, Ca, Fe, Cu, and Zn), and trace elements (Mg, P, S, Ti, Cr, and Mn). Quartz, rice husk, orthoclase, anhydrite, and laterite are the base components, while zinc, copper, and bauxite are the characteristic components. These non-destructive techniques show obvious composition difference between the ancient (original) and new (imitative) amulets.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2022
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