Dynamic testing and simulation of 9 mm full metal jacket ammunition
French-German research institute of Saint-Louis, 5 rue du Général Cassagnou, 68300 Saint-Louis, France
2 Laboratory of Microstructure Studies and Mechanics of Materials, UMR-CNRS 7239, Lorraine University, 7 rue Félix Savart, BP 15082, 57073 Metz Cedex 03, France
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Published online: 9 September 2021
Ballistic protection for armed forces requires a continuous performance improvement to successfully face ever evolving threats and scenarios. Ballistic tests are conventionally carried out in order to assess and validate the levels of protection to a high degree of accuracy. Although very effective, those tests are often time consuming and lack the necessary flexibility. A better approach would be to set up a numerical protocol for a number of simulations and only carry out final real life validation tests. Unquestionably, the main advantage of finite element modelling is the possibility to simultaneously evaluate a wide variety of configurations and their interactions (materials, geometry, architecture, etc.). For reliability, it is necessary to use sufficiently precise material behaviour models to accurately transcribe the phenomena observed during the impact. Our study focuses on the mechanical behaviour of 9 mm ammunition materials, namely a lead alloy core and a steel alloy jacket. For this purpose, a preliminary study (not presented here), was carried out on both the lead core and the steel jacket separately and the parameters for each constitutive model were determined. Lead-steel cylindrical samples, extracted from the ammunition, have been used for the validation of the entire constitutive model. By utilizing those samples, a high degree of the ammunitions material properties have been retained. SHPB tests have been carried out in multiple conditions, varying the striker speeds and temperatures. Additionally, the tests were recorded with an ultra-high speed camera. Strain gages were used to record signals along the input and output bars. Those measurements have been compared to numerical results using Finite Element code (ABAQUS® Explicit). A very satisfying correlation between the experimental data and the simulation has been reached, thus validating the jacket and core constitutive models and interactions for subsequent studies of ballistic impacts.
© The Authors, published by EDP Sciences, 2021
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