Proceedings

EPJ D Highlight - A new simple scheme for atom interferometry

The team’s setup consists of two parallel nano-structured slabs that reflect an incident matter beam three times. Credit: J. Fiedler, B. Holst, EPJ D (2024)

New scheme proposes a simpler method for investigating matter waves with an ease of use that could make it ideal for commercial applications

Atom interferometers are devices that use the wave characteristics of matter to measure the phase between atomic matter waves to separate paths to make high-precision measurements of elements of physics, such as gravitational and magnetic fields. Atom interferometers have also found their way into industry and are used in geological surveys, mineral exploration, environmental monitoring, and for the development of precision atomic clocks.

Atom interferometers usually control matter waves and particularly particle velocity using lasers. Thus, the growth of atom interferometer application has been strongly tied to the development of advanced laser systems, with many current models based on the construction of gratings fashioned from laser beams. That means that an issue with these systems is the fact that they depend on the efficient operation of intricate laser systems. Additionally, while this method has achieved commendable precision, it fails slightly when considering shorter wavelengths.

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EPJ D Highlight - Probing neptunium’s atomic structure with laser spectroscopy

The mass separator used in the experiments. Green: ion trajectory; blue and violet, laser beams. Credit: EPJ, Kaja et al.

A new technique developed by researchers in Germany can measure ionisation states of this element more precisely than before, with implications for its detection and remediation in radioactive waste.

The radioactive element neptunium is one of the principal components of nuclear waste. Mass spectrometry can be used to probe its complex atomic structure, which is of value both for its intrinsic interest and for determining the isotope composition of neptunium waste. Magdalena Kaja at Johannes Gutenberg University, Mainz, Germany and her co-workers have now demonstrated a novel method of laser spectroscopy that can analyse the ionisation potential of neptunium more precisely than earlier methods. This work is now published in the journal EPJ D.

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EPJ D Highlight – Estimating uncertainty in atomic spectroscopy

Many papers added to NIST databases mention atomic spectroscopy topics. Few of these include uncertainty estimates. Credit: A. Kramida (2024)

A numerical toolbox offers a robust way to evaluate uncertainty in atomic wavelength measurements.

If you repeat a measurement with the same or different instruments, you’ll get slightly different numbers each time. Estimating the uncertainties associated with these numbers turns them into an informative result. In a study published in EPJ D, Alexander Kramida, of the National Institute of Standards and Technology in Maryland, USA, now explains a new statistical approach for estimating the uncertainty associated with atomic spectroscopy measurements. He discusses how this approach can be applied both to measurements of spectral line wavelengths, and to other atomic properties that are indirectly determined from them.

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EPJ D Topical Issue: Dynamics and Photodynamics: From Isolated Molecules to the Condensed Phase

Guest Editors: Luis Bañares, Ramón Hernández-Lamoneda, Pascal Larregaray, Germán Rojas-Lorenzo and Jesús Rubayo-Soneira

Dynamics and photodynamics: from isolated molecules to the condensed phase is a highly interdisciplinary topical issue with numerous connections between traditional branches of physics and chemistry.

The issue provides a snapshot of current research in different areas of molecular systems science. It consists of 12 contributions representing both experimental and theoretical studies, ranging from fundamental mechanisms to more applied levels, which are essential in numerous applications of nanotechnology and material science. The contributions featured in this issue encompass a wide range of areas, including spectroscopy, photodissociation, dynamics of reactions involving neutral and charged cluster systems, carbon nanotubes and various other subjects.

This topical issue is celebrating the 20th anniversary of the Photodynamics Conference, held in Havana in November 2022.

All articles are available here and are freely accessible until 15 March 2024. For further information read the Editorial.

EPJ D Topical Issue: Physics of Ionized Gases and Spectroscopy of Isolated Complex Systems: Fundamentals and Applications

Guest Editors: Bratislav Obradović, Jovan Cvetić, Dragana Ilić, Vladimir Srećković and Sylwia Ptasinska

This EPJ D Topical Issue presents selected papers covering a wide range of topics from fundamental studies to applications of ionized gases: Atomic Collision Processes - Electron and Photon Interactions with Atomic Particles, Heavy Particle Collisions, Swarms and Transport Phenomena; Particle and Laser Beam Interactions with Solids - Atomic Collisions in Solids, Sputtering and Deposition, Laser and Plasma Interaction with Surfaces; Low Temperature Plasmas - Plasma Spectroscopy and other Diagnostic Methods, Gas Discharges, Plasma Applications and Devices; General Plasmas - Fusion Plasmas, Astrophysical Plasmas and Collective Phenomena.

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EPJ D Highlight - Creating optical logic gates from graphene nanoribbons

Logic gate operation in a graphene nanoribbon

A new graphene-based optical logic gate uses collective oscillations of electrons to process light waves in a far smaller space than existing designs. The device also benefits from low information loss and high stability.

Research into artificial intelligence (AI) network computing has made significant progress in recent years, but has so far been held back by the limitations of logic gates in conventional computer chips. Through new research published in EPJ D, a team led by Aijun Zhu at Guilin University of Electronic Technology, China, introduce a graphene-based optical logic gate, which addresses many of these challenges.

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EPJ D Highlight - Machine learning hunts for the right mix of hydrogen isotopes for future nuclear fusion power plants

The Sun, where nuclear fusion of hydrogen proceeds in a dense plasma. New research uses machine learning to look for the right mix of hydrogen isotopes for technology that replicates this process on Earth. Credit: ESA/NASA/SOHO

New research is an initial step in the use of deep learning to help determine the right mix of hydrogen isotopes to use in fusion power plants of the future

The process that powers the stars, nuclear fusion, is proposed as a future power source for humanity and could provide clean and renewable energy free of the radioactive waste associated with current nuclear fission plants.

Just like the fusion process that sends energy spilling out from the Sun, future nuclear fusion facilities will slam together isotopes of the universe’s lightest element, hydrogen, in an ultra-hot gas or “plasma” contained by a powerful magnetic field to create helium with the difference in mass harvested as energy.

One thing that scientists must know before the true advent of fusion power here on Earth is what mix of hydrogen isotopes  to use— primarily “standard” hydrogen, with one proton in its atomic nucleus, deuterium with one proton and one neutron in its nucleus, and tritium with a nucleus of one proton and two neutrons. This is currently done with spectroscopy for prototype fusion devices called tokamaks, but this analysis can be time-consuming.

In a new paper in EPJ D, author Mohammed Koubiti, Associate Professor at the Aix-Marseille Universite, France, assesses the use of machine learning in connection with plasma spectroscopy to determine the ratios of hydrogen isotopes for nuclear fusion plasma performance.

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EPJ D Topical Issue: Electron-Driven Processes from Single Collisions to High-Pressure Plasmas

Guest Editors: Jose L. Lopez, Michael Brunger, and Holger Kersten

The special Topical Issue of the European Physics Journal D (EPJ D) on “Electron-Driven Processes from Single Collisions to High-Pressure Plasmas” is published to honor Kurt H. Becker, who served as Editor-in-Chief for the journal from 2010 to 2016, on his 70th birthday. Electron-driven processes from single collisions to high-pressure plasmas definitely occupy a central position in atomic and plasma physics. Considering this, the Guest Editors compilated a broad range of original manuscripts that encompass the area of electron-atom and electron-molecular collisions, respectively, low-temperature plasma research and aligning with Kurt Becker’s emphasis on science innovation and entrepreneurship. Hence, the papers focus on various recent scientific and technological advances in this given area of physics, chemistry and technology of non-thermal plasmas.

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EPJ D Highlight - Looking deeper into graphene using rainbow scattering

An illustration of a kilonova the collision of neutron stars generating conditions extreme enough to forge the Universe’s heavy elements. Credit: Robin Dienel/The Carnegie Institution for ScienceContact

New research uses protons to shine a light on the structure and imperfections of this two-dimensional wonder material

Graphene is a two-dimensional wonder material that has been suggested for a wide range of applications in energy, technology, construction, and more since it was first isolated from graphite in 2004.

This single layer of carbon atoms is tough yet flexible, light but with high resistance, with graphene calculated to be 200 times more resistant than steel and five times lighter than aluminium.

Graphene may sound perfect, but it very literally is not. Isolated samples of this 2D allotrope aren’t perfectly flat, with its surface rippled. Graphene can also feature structural defects that can, in some cases, be deleterious to its function and, in other instances, can be essential to its chosen application. That means that the controlled implementation of defects could enable fine-tuning of the desired properties of two-dimensional crystals of graphene.

In a new paper in EPJ D, Milivoje Hadžijojić and Marko Ćosić, both of the Vinča Institute of Nuclear Sciences, University of Belgrade, Serbia, examine the rainbow scattering of photons passing through graphene and how it reveals the structure and imperfections of this wonder material.

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EPJ D Highlight - Looking deeper into violent neutron star collisions to find the origins of heavy elements

An illustration of a kilonova the collision of neutron stars generating conditions extreme enough to forge the Universe’s heavy elements. Credit: Robin Dienel/The Carnegie Institution for ScienceContact

The gold that makes up your most precious jewellery may have been forged in a violent cosmic collision millions or billions of light years away between two neutron stars. New research seeks to better understand this process.

There is only a single confirmed site in the Universe capable of generating conditions extreme enough to initiate the production process for many of the heaviest elements in the Universe, including gold, platinum, uranium – neutron star mergers. These mergers are the only event observed to-date that can produce the incredible densities and temperatures needed to power the rapid neutron capture process.

In a new paper in EPJ D, Andrey Bondarev, a postdoc researcher at Helmholtz Institute Jena, James Gillanders a postdoc researcher in Rome, and their colleagues examine the spectra from the kilonova AT2017gfo to investigate the presence of forged tin, by looking for spectral features caused by its forbidden transitions.

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This was our first experience of publishing with EPJ Web of Conferences. We contacted the publisher in the middle of September, just one month prior to the Conference, but everything went through smoothly. We have had published MNPS Proceedings with different publishers in the past, and would like to tell that the EPJ Web of Conferences team was probably the best, very quick, helpful and interactive. Typically, we were getting responses from EPJ Web of Conferences team within less than an hour and have had help at every production stage.
We are very thankful to Solange Guenot, Web of Conferences Publishing Editor, and Isabelle Houlbert, Web of Conferences Production Editor, for their support. These ladies are top-level professionals, who made a great contribution to the success of this issue. We are fully satisfied with the publication of the Conference Proceedings and are looking forward to further cooperation. The publication was very fast, easy and of high quality. My colleagues and I strongly recommend EPJ Web of Conferences to anyone, who is interested in quick high-quality publication of conference proceedings.

On behalf of the Organizing and Program Committees and Editorial Team of MNPS-2019, Dr. Alexey B. Nadykto, Moscow State Technological University “STANKIN”, Moscow, Russia. EPJ Web of Conferences vol. 224 (2019)

ISSN: 2100-014X (Electronic Edition)

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